Svensk version
Six violins dendrochronologicaly analyzed
by Torbjörn Axelson, February 2011.
Ekeb15
Ekeb15, ”Garmisch”
The top is made of two pieces from the same wedge. The rings under the strings were not measurable according to low photo quality. Correlation values are a bit low but the probable dating is: Provenience (if that is correct) is the Alp region (which is expected according to label).

Cybis CDendro, Algorithm: Proportion of last two years growth (2,0,T Correlations between available references in PCAB_ABAL_centalEUR.rwl and Ekeb15M.wid dated to 1916 with corr >= 0.44 and with overlap >= 71 Results sorted according to decreasing correlation coefficient values.
                    T-  Over
           Corr   Test   lap
all...     0.57   5.80    71   based on 5 members
swit177w   0.50   4.85    71  Lauenen + div. Stao CH, 1250 m, ?46.417, 7.317              Schweingruber       PCAB
swit189    0.50   4.81    71  Glarus GL; 47N9E, 1500m;                                    ChBigler,E Rötheli  PCAB
swit173w   0.48   4.59    71  Obersaxen, Meierhof, GR, 1520 m, ?46.733, 9.083             F Schweingruber     PCAB
fran039    0.47   4.42    71  Mont Risoux, 1100 m, 46.633, 6.083,                         McCormick&al        PCAB
swit193    0.44   4.09    71  Vals GR Riefawald, CH; 1900m, 46N9E;                        ChBigler, KKühne    PCAB

Ekeb16
Ekeb16 (stamp with a buckler containing the letters B M K) Some rings are difficult to interpret and the central glue joint is almost invisible according to bad varnish condition. The joint was identified partly by cross dating. Both sides are from the same wedge. Measured rings: A very good match especially towards ITRDB:Germ040 “Falkenstein”, 1325 m, near the border between Bavaria and Czech republic about 150 km south of Markneukirchen area. The wood is not necessarily taken there, but probably not in Erzgebirge or in the Alps.

Cybis CDendro, Algorithm: Proportion of last two years growth (2,0,T Correlations between available references in PCAB_ABAL_centalEUR.rwl and Ekeb16M.wid dated to 1911 with corr >= 0.42 and with overlap >= 83 Results sorted according to decreasing correlation coefficient values.
                     T-  Over
            Corr   Test   lap
all...      0.67   8.67   96   based on 8 members
germ040     0.61   7.37   96  Falkenstein, 1325m, 49.1, 13.333                            Rob Wilson          PCAB
czec001     0.50   5.64   96  Krkonose mount., Upper Labe valley, n sl,1000m 50.75,15.55  Sander,Eckstein&al  PCAB
germ14      0.50   5.57   96  Bayerischer Wald, ?48.75, 13                                Becker              PCAB
pola022     0.47   5.17   96  BabiaGora, Poland, 1300M, 4935 01903                        U. Büntgen et al    PCAB
swit189     0.47   5.10   96  Glarus GL; 47N9E, 1500m;                                    ChBigler,E Rötheli  PCAB
germ033     0.45   4.52   83  Arber, 1420 m, 49.117, 13.133                               Rob Wilson          PCAB
Saxony-RF   0.44   4.77   96  Saxony violins, mainly. Selection out of RF Collection                          PCAB
pola019     0.42   4.51   96  Swistowko, Wyznig, 1500 m, 49.25, 19.917                    F Schweingruber     PCAB


Ekeb17
Ekeb17 ”Nicola Gusetto Anno 1785”
The top is made of two halves from the same wedge. Only 54 rings was found. T-values are too tow for a certain date, but likely the uttermost ring is from 1921, not too far from Markneukirchen – high values for ABAL (Abies alba) chronologies, but the texture may point towards PCAB (Picea abies). Be careful. This dating (and provenience) is uncertain, and may possibly be wrong!

Cybis CDendro, Algorithm: Proportion of last two years growth (2,0,T Correlations between available references in PCAB_ABAL_centalEUR.rwl and Ekeb17M.wid dated to 1921 with corr >= 0.49 and with overlap >= 48 Results sorted according to decreasing correlation coefficient values.
                           T-  Over
                  Corr   Test   lap
all...            0.65   6.09    53   based on 5 members
germ4_tr          0.55   4.68    53  Bayerischer Wald, (trunc) ?48.75, 13               Becker              ABAL
czec              0.52   4.40    53  Beskid Mountains, 49.833, 18.333                   Becker              ABAL
germ14            0.52   4.34    53  Bayerischer Wald, ?48.75, 13                       Becker              PCAB
Musikwinkeln-TA   0.49   3.85    48  Markneukirchen etc                                 T Axelson           PCAB
Saxony-RF         0.49   4.03    53  Saxony, mainly. Selection out of RF Collection    (based on R.Furnari) PCAB
Ekeb18
Ekeb18 ”Straduarius 1721”
“Violin of relatively good quality. Slightly repaired by Allan Calsson in Eskilstuna, Sweden”*
The top consists of two pieces which are not from the same wedge, but possibly from same tree and at least from the same stand. The bass side has its oldest rings central, under the strings (the usual way), but the treble side has its oldest rings in the middle! In this way the growth direction is the same all over the top, as if it was made out of only one piece. But it is not!
Growth rings are available for the years: The wood is cut in the Alps after 1906.

Cybis CDendro, Algorithm: Proportion of last two years growth (2,0,T Correlations between available references in PCAB_ABAL_centalEUR.rwl and Ekeb18 (mean of two normalized samples) dated to 1906 with corr >= 0.49 and with overlap >= 84 Results sorted according to decreasing correlation coefficient values.
                    T-  Over
           Corr   Test   lap
all...     0.63   7.30    84   based on 7 members
swit181    0.63   7.29    84  Davos GR Dischma-Flüela, 1800 m, 46.783, 9.883              Christof Bigler     PCAB
swit169w   0.58   6.52    84  Simmental, Iffigenalp, 1900 m, 46.4, 7.433                  F Schweingruber     PCAB
aust003    0.53   5.71    84  Obergurgl, ?46.867, 11.017                                  Giertz              PCAB
swit189    0.53   5.62    84  Glarus GL; 47N9E, 1500m;                                    ChBigler,E Rötheli  PCAB
swit184    0.51   5.35    84  Muotathal SZ Bödmerenwald, 1550 m, 46.983, 8.85,            Christof Bigler     PCAB
aust007    0.50   5.29    84  Stubaital, Milderaun Alm, 1850 m, ?47.133, 11.283           Schweingruber       PCAB
swit193    0.49   5.14    84  Vals GR Riefawald, CH; 1900m, 46N9E;                        ChBigler, KKühne    PCAB

Ekeb19
Ekeb19 ”Maggini type, by Sebastian Götz”
The top consists of two pieces from the same wedge, jointed in the middle, the usual way. Available growth rings: The date is certain mainly according to a match towards the VLC002 in R. Furnaris collection (T=6.3). The wood is likely from the common Markneukirchen source area (Erzgebirge?), although the older part shows rather low correlation values.

Cybis CDendro, Algorithm: Proportion of last two years growth (2,0,T Correlations between available references in PCAB_ABAL_centalEUR.rwl and Ekeb19M.wid dated to 1902 with corr >= 0.46 and with overlap >= 62 Results sorted according to decreasing correlation coefficient values.
                     T-  Over
            Corr   Test   lap
all...      0.57   5.41    62   based on 3 members
Saxony-RF   0.49   4.40    62  Saxony, mainly. Selection out of RF Collection                                 PCAB
germ14      0.47   4.16    62  Bayerischer Wald, ?48.75, 13                                Becker             PCAB
czec3R      0.46   3.96    62  Beskid Mountains, ?49.833, 18.333                           Becker             PCAB

Ekeb20
Ekeb20 ”repaired (rebuild) 1904 by Jäger in Hildesheim”

The body is from an old violin and the shape of the bottom is very unusual and possibly as old as 17th century.*

The wood of the top seems also very unusual. The growth rings are very distinct, usually with sharp borders between early wood and late wood. The ring widths varies between some wide and some very narrow and light (probably indication precipitation growth limitation). In many late wood rings, resin ducts are visible as light streaks. Also a change of color which should be interpreted as the transitions from heart wood to sap wood is present (14 measurable sap wood rings at the bass side). So it seems likely that this top is made of some kind of pine wood (Pinus species)!

The glue joint is placed asymmetrical at about the G-string (first string from the bass side). Both sides seems to be from the same tree. Rings have been measured from a time span of totally 217 years: No match has been found despite extensive search towards pine chronologies from all over Europe (as well as the usual spruce references normally used for violins).

General
The images from which the measurements were taken are available here. Measurement files here.

______
* Sören Ekebjörns, oral comunication.


This and other dendrochronological studies by T. Axelson are available at www2.hemsida.net/taxelson/dendro/obj/nytt.htm



Svensk version:

Sex violiner dendrokronologiskt analyserade

by Torbjörn Axelson, February 2011.



Ekeb15

Ekeb15, ”Garmisch”

Tillverkad av två halvor ur samma kil. Ringarna under strängarna gick inte att mäta på tillgängligt foto. Korrelationsvärdena är svaga men troligen är dateringen

Virket i så fall från alpregionen (vilket är väntat):


Cybis CDendro, Algorithm: Proportion of last two years growth (2,0,T
Correlations between available references in PCAB_ABAL_centalEUR.rwl and Ekeb15M.wid
dated to 1916 with corr >= 0.44 and with overlap >= 71
Results sorted according to decreasing correlation coefficient values.

                    T-  Over
           Corr   Test   lap
all...     0.57   5.80    71   based on 5 members
swit177w   0.50   4.85    71  Lauenen + div. Stao CH, 1250 m, ?46.417, 7.317              Schweingruber       PCAB
swit189    0.50   4.81    71  Glarus GL; 47N9E, 1500m;                                    ChBigler,E Rötheli  PCAB
swit173w   0.48   4.59    71  Obersaxen, Meierhof, GR, 1520 m, ?46.733, 9.083             F Schweingruber     PCAB
fran039    0.47   4.42    71  Mont Risoux, 1100 m, 46.633, 6.083,                         McCormick&al        PCAB
swit193    0.44   4.09    71  Vals GR Riefawald, CH; 1900m, 46N9E;                        ChBigler, KKühne    PCAB

Ekeb16

Ekeb16 (stämplad med sköldmärke med bokstäverna B M K)

Lacken är flagnande, vilket gör att en del ringar är svårtydda, och den centrala limfogen mycket svår att se, men identifierades slutligen med stöd av korsdatering. Båda sidorna är av samma kil. Uppmätta ringar:

Korrelationsanalysen ger mycket goda värden mot främst ITRDB:Germ040 ”Falkenstein”, 1325 m, på gränsen mellan Bayern och Tjeckien ca 150 km söder om Markneukirchen-området. Virket är inte nödvändigtvis taget där, men troligen inte i Erzgebirge och inte heller i Alperna.


Cybis CDendro, Algorithm: Proportion of last two years growth (2,0,T
Correlations between available references in PCAB_ABAL_centalEUR.rwl and Ekeb16M.wid
dated to 1911 with corr >= 0.42 and with overlap >= 83
Results sorted according to decreasing correlation coefficient values.

                     T-  Over
            Corr   Test   lap
all...      0.67   8.67   96   based on 8 members
germ040     0.61   7.37   96  Falkenstein, 1325m, 49.1, 13.333                            Rob Wilson          PCAB
czec001     0.50   5.64   96  Krkonose mount., Upper Labe valley, n sl,1000m 50.75,15.55  Sander,Eckstein&al  PCAB
germ14      0.50   5.57   96  Bayerischer Wald, ?48.75, 13                                Becker              PCAB
pola022     0.47   5.17   96  BabiaGora, Poland, 1300M, 4935 01903                        U. Büntgen et al    PCAB
swit189     0.47   5.10   96  Glarus GL; 47N9E, 1500m;                                    ChBigler,E Rötheli  PCAB
germ033     0.45   4.52   83  Arber, 1420 m, 49.117, 13.133                               Rob Wilson          PCAB
Saxony-RF   0.44   4.77   96  Saxony violins, mainly. Selection out of RF Collection                          PCAB
pola019     0.42   4.51   96  Swistowko, Wyznig, 1500 m, 49.25, 19.917                    F Schweingruber     PCAB

Ekeb17

Ekeb17 ”Nicola Gusetto Anno 1785”

Två halvor av samma kil. Endast 54 ringar kan mätas. T-värden alltför låga för säker datering. Mest troligt dock 1921 ej alltför långt från Markneukirchen – Höga värden för ABAL (Abies alba) kronologier, men texturen tyder nog ändå på PCAB (Picea abies). Denna ”datering” (och proveniens måste dock tas med en stor nypa salt!


Cybis CDendro, Algorithm: Proportion of last two years growth (2,0,T
Correlations between available references in PCAB_ABAL_centalEUR.rwl and Ekeb17M.wid
dated to 1921 with corr >= 0.49 and with overlap >= 48
Results sorted according to decreasing correlation coefficient values.

                           T-  Over
                  Corr   Test   lap
all...            0.65   6.09    53   based on 5 members
germ4_tr          0.55   4.68    53  Bayerischer Wald, (trunc) ?48.75, 13               Becker              ABAL
czec              0.52   4.40    53  Beskid Mountains, 49.833, 18.333                   Becker              ABAL
germ14            0.52   4.34    53  Bayerischer Wald, ?48.75, 13                       Becker              PCAB
Musikwinkeln-TA   0.49   3.85    48  Markneukirchen etc                                 T Axelson           PCAB
Saxony-RF         0.49   4.03    53  Saxony, mainly. Selection out of RF Collection    (based on R.Furnari) PCAB

Ekeb18

Ekeb18 ”Straduarius 1721”

”Fiol av relativt bra kvalité utan att vara något underverk”*. Översedd av Allan Carlsson i Eskilstuna.*

Locket består av två delar, som inte kommer från samma kil, men kanske från samma träd och i varje fall från samma bestånd. Bassidan har sina äldsta ringar under strängarna (som vanligt) medan diskantsidan har sina yngsta ringar ute vid sargen och följaktligen de äldsta under strängarna. På detta sätt är träets tillväxtriktning hela tiden åt samma håll, som om locket vore gjort i ett stycke – vilket det alltså inte är. Årsringar finns för åren:

Cybis CDendro, Algorithm: Proportion of last two years growth (2,0,T
Correlations between available references in PCAB_ABAL_centalEUR.rwl and Ekeb18 (mean of two normalized samples)
dated to 1906 with corr >= 0.49 and with overlap >= 84
Results sorted according to decreasing correlation coefficient values.

                    T-  Over
           Corr   Test   lap
all...     0.63   7.30    84   based on 7 members
swit181    0.63   7.29    84  Davos GR Dischma-Flüela, 1800 m, 46.783, 9.883              Christof Bigler     PCAB
swit169w   0.58   6.52    84  Simmental, Iffigenalp, 1900 m, 46.4, 7.433                  F Schweingruber     PCAB
aust003    0.53   5.71    84  Obergurgl, ?46.867, 11.017                                  Giertz              PCAB
swit189    0.53   5.62    84  Glarus GL; 47N9E, 1500m;                                    ChBigler,E Rötheli  PCAB
swit184    0.51   5.35    84  Muotathal SZ Bödmerenwald, 1550 m, 46.983, 8.85,            Christof Bigler     PCAB
aust007    0.50   5.29    84  Stubaital, Milderaun Alm, 1850 m, ?47.133, 11.283           Schweingruber       PCAB
swit193    0.49   5.14    84  Vals GR Riefawald, CH; 1900m, 46N9E;                        ChBigler, KKühne    PCAB

Ekeb19

Ekeb19 ”Maggini-typ av Sebastian Götz”

Locket består av två delar av samma kil med limfog i mitten.

Dateringen är säkerställd genom jämförelse med VLC002 i R. Furnaris samling (T=6.3). Virket har troligen det vanliga ursprunget för Markneukirchen (Erzgebirge?), trots att den äldre delen har ganska dålig korrelation.


Cybis CDendro, Algorithm: Proportion of last two years growth (2,0,T
Correlations between available references in PCAB_ABAL_centalEUR.rwl and Ekeb19M.wid
dated to 1902 with corr >= 0.46 and with overlap >= 62
Results sorted according to decreasing correlation coefficient values.

                     T-  Over
            Corr   Test   lap
all...      0.57   5.41    62   based on 3 members
Saxony-RF   0.49   4.40    62  Saxony, mainly. Selection out of RF Collection                                 PCAB
germ14      0.47   4.16    62  Bayerischer Wald, ?48.75, 13                                Becker             PCAB
czec3R      0.46   3.96    62  Beskid Mountains, ?49.833, 18.333                           Becker             PCAB

Ekeb20

Ekeb20 ”Jäger i Hildesheim, rep. 1904”

Virket är mycket ovanligt för att sitt på en fiol. Årsringarna är mycket distinkta, vanligen med distinkt övergång från vårved till höstved. Ringbredden varierar mycket mellan vissa kraftiga ringar och andra mycket tunna. I många höstvedsringar finns resinkanaler i form av ljusa streck. Det finns färgskiftningar som nog bör tolkas som övergång mellan splintved och kärnved. Allt detta är tecken på att det är fråga om virke från någon slags tall (Pinus)!

Limfogen är placerad asymmetriskt i närheten av G-strängen (den första strängen på bassidan). Totalt har 217 ringar kunnat mätas. Båda sidorna torde vara från samma träd.

Ingen datering har kunnat göras trots omfattande jämförelser med nord- central- och sydeuropeiska tallkronologier (samt de vanliga granreferenserna). Eftersom det torde vara fråga om tall, kan förekomst av saknade ringar kanske inte uteslutas.

____

*Sören Ekebjörns, muntligt.

Bilderna som ligger till grund för mätningarna finns här. Mätvärden finns här.



Denna och andra dendrokronologiska studier av T. Axelson återfinns på www2.hemsida.net/taxelson/dendro/obj/nytt.htm